Research | Landscape Performance Series | Case Study Briefs

Crosswinds Marsh Wetland Interpretive Preserve

Designer

SmithGroupJJR

Land Use

Agriculture
Park/Open space

Project Type

Wetland creation/restoration
Nature preserve

Location

27600 Haggerty Road
New Boston, Michigan 48164
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Size

1,050 acres

Budget

$18.1 million

Completion Date

1995

References & Resources

SmithGroupJJR: Crosswinds Marsh Preserve

American Road and Transportation Builders Association Globe Award, 2002

The Waterfront Center Honor Award, 2001

U.S. Department of Transportation Design Merit Award, 2000

ASLA Presidents Award of Excellence, 1999

Airports Council International Environmental Achievement Award, 1999

ASLA Honor Award, 1998

Landscape Performance Benefits

  • Restored over 100 acres of historical wetland habitat that had been drained for agriculture and residential use.
  • Decreased upstream and downstream flooding.
  • Created a variety of habitat types for native flora and fauna. Monitoring data identified over 200 species of birds, 170 species of plants, 20 fish, 30 mammals, 21 reptiles and amphibians, and 70 species of butterflies and dragonflies.
  • Provides recreational, interpretive and educational opportunities for more than 15,000 visitors each year while limiting visitor access to sensitive areas.

Download Methodology

  • One of the largest self-sustaining wetland mitigation projects in the country, Crosswinds Marsh is also a recreational park and wildlife refuge. Created for Detroit Metropolitan Wayne CountyAirport (DTW) to meet environmental regulations from airport expansion, the park far exceeds the requirements and accommodates multiple public uses, including passive recreation, fishing, and environmental learning opportunities. It is part of the Wayne County Park system. 

    • A diversity of wetland habitat types, including forested, wet meadow, emergent, submergent and deep water areas were created on the site.
    • By carefully grading and sculpting the land to follow site hydrology, no pumps, dykes or artificial methods are required to maintain the natural systems.
    • Over 300,000 native aquatic plants, 10,000 seedlings and 300 acres of wetland seed were added to the site to create self-sustaining wetland communities.
    • Sensitive planning created and limited access to habitat for several threatened species. These include bald eagle nesting sites and 20 acres set aside for the propagation and re-establishment of three rare plant species relocated from the airport.
    • The site serves as an ongoing research facility for scientists to monitor and collect data on revegetation strategies and construction and implementation methods for future restoration activities.
    • The preserve offers a varierty of recreation opportunities, including over 5 miles of hiking trails, canoeing, fishing, bird watching, and horseback riding.
    • Two full-time naturalists lead 15 interpretive programs throughout the year.
  • Challenge:

    In 2005, DTW embarked on a massive Capital Improvement Program to sustain future growth and meet infrastructure and capacity requirements, including construction of a new runway. Through a cooperative effort, regulatory agencies, local townships and a citizens advisory committee developed an idea to mitigate all impacted wetlands at one location and make it publicly accessible.

    Solution:

    The design prioritized ecological function over recreational uses. As such, non-habitat enhancements, like interpretive signage, boardwalks and defined trails, were contained within the most accessible areas of the preserve. This accommodates recreational, interpretive and educational opportunities for visitors while preserving the majority of the site for wildlife habitat.

  • Total project cost, including fees, property acquisition and construction, was $18.1 million. Providing wetlands mitigation on the airport site was both physically impossible and in violation of local wildlife regulations. By mitigating the wetlands at one off-site location, maintenance costs are reduced because the county does not have to maintain recreation features at multiple sites.

    • It is necessary to strike a balance among permit requirements, hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, wildlife and plant habitat, construction sequencing and public input.
    • Continuous yearly monitoring and an aggressive management plan to control invasive species are critical to the success of habitat restoration.
  • Project Team:

    Site Selection, Concept Design, Landscape Architecture, Civil Engineering, Horticulture, Environmental Science, Aquatic Biology, Public Involvement, Permitting: SmithGroupJJR´╗┐
    Engineering Assistance: Tucker, Young, Jackson and Tull
    Architecture: Lincoln Poley, AIA
    Contractors: ABC Paving; W.H. Canon, Inc.; L. Lawyer Construction

    Role of the Landscape Architect:

    Led a team of wetland ecologists, botanists, wildlife and fishery biologists, recreation planners and civil engineers.

Additional Images

Scout groups, teachers, and elementary to university students use the preserve as an outdoor learning laboratory.A network of boardwalks and observation platforms protects sensitive habitats and encourages public use.

Special thanks to:

jjr-royfund160w

Landscape Performance Series
Founding Partner 

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2 Comments

  1. Karole MatthewsNov 4th, 2012 4:09pm
    Karole Matthews said:

    What oppotunities do you offer for 2nd graders? What is the cost? There would be about 75 children.

  2. Landscape Architecture FoundationNov 7th, 2012 2:10pm
    Landscape Architecture Foundation said:

    Hi, Karole. For questions about school programs and other educational programming, you can contact the preserve directly: http://www.co.wayne.mi.us/dps/dps_parks_resources_sumpter.htm

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